10 Commands to Collect System and Hardware Info in Linux

It is always a good practice to know the hardware components of your Linux system is running on, this helps you to deal with compatibility issues when it comes to installing packages, drivers on your system using yum, dnf, or apt.

10 Commands to Check Hardware and System Information in Linux

Therefore in these tips and tricks series, we shall look at some useful commands that can help you to extract information about your Linux system and hardware components.

1. How to View Linux System Information

To know only the system name, you can use the uname command without any switch that will print system information or the uname -s command will print the kernel name of your system.

[email protected] ~ $unameLinux

To view your network hostname, use the ‘-n’ switch with the uname command as shown.

[email protected] ~ $uname -ntecmint.com

To get information about kernel-version, use the ‘-v’ switch.

[email protected] ~ $uname -v#64-Ubuntu SMP Mon Sep 22 21:28:38 UTC 2014

To get the information about your kernel release, use the ‘-r’ switch.

[email protected] ~ $uname -r3.13.0-37-generic

To print your machine hardware name, use the ‘-m’ switch:

[email protected] ~ $uname -mx86_64

All this information can be printed at once by running the ‘uname -a’ command as shown below.

[email protected] ~ $uname -aLinux tecmint.com 3.13.0-37-generic #64-Ubuntu SMP Mon Sep 22 21:28:38
 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

2. How to View Linux System Hardware Information

Here you can use the lshw tool to gather vast information about your hardware components such as cpu, disks, memory, usb controllers, etc.

lshw is a relatively small tool and there are few options that you can use with it while extracting information. The information provided by lshw was gathered from different /proc files.

Note: Do remember that the lshw command is executed by the superuser (root) or sudo user.

Read Also: Difference Between su and sudo User in Linux

To print information about your Linux system hardware, run this command.

[email protected] ~ $sudo lshw
 
 tecmint.com 
 description: Notebook
 product: 20354 (LENOVO_MT_20354_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo Z50-70)
 vendor: LENOVO
 version: Lenovo Z50-70
 serial: 1037407803441
 width: 64 bits
 capabilities: smbios-2.7 dmi-2.7 vsyscall32
 configuration: administrator_password=disabled boot=normal 
 chassis=notebook family=IDEAPAD frontpanel_password=disabled 
 keyboard_password=disabled power-on_password=disabled 
 sku=LENOVO_MT_20354_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo Z50-70 
 uuid=E4B1D229-D237-E411-9F6E-28D244EBBD98
 *-core
 description: Motherboard
 product: Lancer 5A5
 vendor: LENOVO
 physical id: 0
 version: 31900059WIN
 serial: YB06377069
 slot: Type2 - Board Chassis Location
 *-firmware
 description: BIOS
 vendor: LENOVO
 physical id: 0
 version: 9BCN26WW
 date: 07/31/2014
 size: 128KiB
 capacity: 4032KiB
 capabilities: pci upgrade shadowing cdboot bootselect edd 
 int13floppytoshiba int13floppy360 int13floppy1200 int13floppy720 
 int13floppy2880 int9keyboard int10video acpi usb biosbootspecification uefi
 ......
 

You can print a summary of your hardware information by using the -short option.

[email protected] ~ $sudo lshw -short
 
 H/W path Device Class Description
 =====================================================
 system 20354 (LENOVO_MT_20354_
 BU_idea_FM_Lenovo Z50-70)
 /0 bus Lancer 5A5
 /0/0 memory 128KiB BIOS
 /0/4 processor Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4210U 
 CPU @ 1.70GHz
 /0/4/b memory 32KiB L1 cache
 /0/4/c memory 256KiB L2 cache
 /0/4/d memory 3MiB L3 cache
 /0/a memory 32KiB L1 cache
 /0/12 memory 8GiB System Memory
 /0/12/0 memory DIMM [empty]
 /0/12/1 memory DIMM [empty]
 /0/12/2 memory 8GiB SODIMM DDR3 Synchronous 
 1600 MHz (0.6 ns)
 /0/12/3 memory DIMM [empty]
 /0/100 bridge Haswell-ULT DRAM Controller
 /0/100/2 display Haswell-ULT Integrated 
 Graphics Controller
 /0/100/3 multimedia Haswell-ULT HD Audio Controller
 ...
 

If you wish to generate output as an html file, you can use the option -html.

[email protected] ~ $sudo lshw -html > lshw.html
Generate Linux Hardware Information in HTML

3. How to View Linux CPU Information

To view information about your CPU, use the lscpu command as it shows information about your CPU architecture such as a number of CPUs, cores, CPU family model, CPU caches, threads, etc from sysfs and /proc/cpuinfo.

[email protected] ~ $lscpu
 
 Architecture: x86_64
 CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit
 Byte Order: Little Endian
 CPU(s): 4
 On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3
 Thread(s) per core: 2
 Core(s) per socket: 2
 Socket(s): 1
 NUMA node(s): 1
 Vendor ID: GenuineIntel
 CPU family: 6
 Model: 69
 Stepping: 1
 CPU MHz: 768.000
 BogoMIPS: 4788.72
 Virtualization: VT-x
 L1d cache: 32K
 L1i cache: 32K
 L2 cache: 256K
 L3 cache: 3072K
 NUMA node0 CPU(s): 0-3
 

4. How to Collect Linux Block Device Information

Block devices are storage devices such as hard disks, flash drives, etc. lsblk command is used to report information about block devices as follows.

[email protected] ~ $lsblk
 
 NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
 sda 8:0 0 931.5G 0 disk 
 ├─sda1 8:1 0 1000M 0 part 
 ├─sda2 8:2 0 260M 0 part /boot/efi
 ├─sda3 8:3 0 1000M 0 part 
 ├─sda4 8:4 0 128M 0 part 
 ├─sda5 8:5 0 557.1G 0 part 
 ├─sda6 8:6 0 25G 0 part 
 ├─sda7 8:7 0 14.7G 0 part 
 ├─sda8 8:8 0 1M 0 part 
 ├─sda9 8:9 0 324.5G 0 part /
 └─sda10 8:10 0 7.9G 0 part [SWAP]
 sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom 
 

If you want to view all block devices on your system then include the -a option.

[email protected] ~ $lsblk -a
 
 NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
 sda 8:0 0 931.5G 0 disk 
 ├─sda1 8:1 0 1000M 0 part 
 ├─sda2 8:2 0 260M 0 part /boot/efi
 ├─sda3 8:3 0 1000M 0 part 
 ├─sda4 8:4 0 128M 0 part 
 ├─sda5 8:5 0 557.1G 0 part 
 ├─sda6 8:6 0 25G 0 part 
 ├─sda7 8:7 0 14.7G 0 part 
 ├─sda8 8:8 0 1M 0 part 
 ├─sda9 8:9 0 324.5G 0 part /
 └─sda10 8:10 0 7.9G 0 part [SWAP]
 sdb 8:16 1 0 disk 
 sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom 
 ram0 1:0 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram1 1:1 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram2 1:2 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram3 1:3 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram4 1:4 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram5 1:5 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram6 1:6 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram7 1:7 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram8 1:8 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram9 1:9 0 64M 0 disk 
 loop0 7:0 0 0 loop 
 loop1 7:1 0 0 loop 
 loop2 7:2 0 0 loop 
 loop3 7:3 0 0 loop 
 loop4 7:4 0 0 loop 
 loop5 7:5 0 0 loop 
 loop6 7:6 0 0 loop 
 loop7 7:7 0 0 loop 
 ram10 1:10 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram11 1:11 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram12 1:12 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram13 1:13 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram14 1:14 0 64M 0 disk 
 ram15 1:15 0 64M 0 disk 
 

5. How to Print USB Controllers Information

The lsusb command is used to report information about USB controllers and all the devices that are connected to them.

[email protected] ~ $lsusb
 
 Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:8000 Intel Corp. 
 Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
 Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
 Bus 002 Device 005: ID 0bda:b728 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. 
 Bus 002 Device 004: ID 5986:0249 Acer, Inc 
 Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0bda:0129 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. 
 RTS5129 Card Reader Controller
 Bus 002 Device 002: ID 045e:00cb Microsoft Corp. 
 Basic Optical Mouse v2.0
 Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 
 2.0 root hub
 

You can use the -v option to generate detailed information about each USB device.

[email protected] ~ $lsusb -v

6. How to Print PCI Devices Information

PCI devices may include usb ports, graphics cards, network adapters, etc. The lspci tool is used to generate information concerning all PCI controllers on your system plus the devices that are connected to them.

To print information about PCI devices run the following command.

[email protected] ~ $lspci
 
 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Haswell-ULT 
 DRAM Controller (rev 0b)
 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Haswell-ULT 
 Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 0b)
 00:03.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation Haswell-ULT HD Audio Controller
 (rev 0b)
 00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP USB xHCI HC 
 (rev 04)
 00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP HECI #0 
 (rev 04)
 00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP HD Audio Controller 
 (rev 04)
 00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP PCI Express Root Port 3 
 (rev e4)
 00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP PCI Express Root Port 4 
 (rev e4)
 00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP PCI Express Root Port 5 
 (rev e4)
 00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP USB EHCI #1 
 (rev 04)
 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP LPC Controller 
 (rev 04)
 00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP SATA Controller 1 
 [AHCI mode] (rev 04)
 00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation Lynx Point-LP SMBus Controller (rev 04)
 01:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 
 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 10)
 02:00.0 Network controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. 
 RTL8723BE PCIe Wireless Network Adapter
 03:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GM108M [GeForce 840M] (rev a2)
 

Use the -t option to produce output in a tree format.

[email protected] ~ $lspci -t
 
 -[0000:00]-+-00.0
 +-02.0
 +-03.0
 +-14.0
 +-16.0
 +-1b.0
 +-1c.0-[01]----00.0
 +-1c.3-[02]----00.0
 +-1c.4-[03]----00.0
 +-1d.0
 +-1f.0
 +-1f.2
 \-1f.3
 

Use the -v option to produce detailed information about each connected device.

[email protected] ~ $lspci -v
 
 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Haswell-ULT DRAM Controller (rev 0b)
 Subsystem: Lenovo Device 3978
 Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0
 Capabilities: 
 
 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Haswell-ULT 
 Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 0b) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
 Subsystem: Lenovo Device 380d
 Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 62
 Memory at c3000000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4M]
 Memory at d0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
 I/O ports at 6000 [size=64]
 Expansion ROM at [disabled]
 Capabilities: 
 Kernel driver in use: i915
 .....
 

7. How to Print SCSI Devices Information

To view all your scsi/sata devices, use the lsscsi command as follows. If you do not have the lsscsi tool installed, run the following command to install it.

$ sudo apt-get install lsscsi [on Debian derivatives]
 # yum install lsscsi [On RedHat based systems]
 # dnf install lsscsi [On Fedora 21+ Onwards]
 

After installation, run the lsscsi command as shown:

[email protected] ~ $lsscsi
 
 [0:0:0:0] disk ATA ST1000LM024 HN-M 2BA3 /dev/sda 
 [1:0:0:0] cd/dvd PLDS DVD-RW DA8A5SH RL61 /dev/sr0 
 [4:0:0:0] disk Generic- xD/SD/M.S. 1.00 /dev/sdb 
 

Use the -s option to show device sizes.

[email protected] ~ $lsscsi -s
 
 [0:0:0:0] disk ATA ST1000LM024 HN-M 2BA3 /dev/sda 1.00TB
 [1:0:0:0] cd/dvd PLDS DVD-RW DA8A5SH RL61 /dev/sr0 -
 [4:0:0:0] disk Generic- xD/SD/M.S. 1.00 /dev/sdb -
 

8. How to Print Information about SATA Devices

You can find some information about sata devices on your system as follows using the hdparm utility. In the example below, I used the block device /dev/sda1 which is the hard disk on my system.

[email protected] ~ $sudo hdparm /dev/sda1
 
 /dev/sda1:
 multcount = 0 (off)
 IO_support = 1 (32-bit)
 readonly = 0 (off)
 readahead = 256 (on)
 geometry = 56065/255/63, sectors = 2048000, start = 2048
 

To print information about device geometry in terms of cylinders, heads, sectors, size, and the starting offset of the device, use the -g option.

[email protected] ~ $sudo hdparm -g /dev/sda1
 
 /dev/sda1:
 geometry = 56065/255/63, sectors = 2048000, start = 2048
 

9. How to Check Linux File System Information

To gather information about file system partitions, you can use the fdisk command. Although the main functionality of the fdisk command is to modify file system partitions, it can also be used to view information about the different partitions on your file system.

You can print partition information as follows. Remember to run the command as a superuser or else you may not see any output.

[email protected] ~ $sudo fdisk -l
 
 WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! 
 The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.
 
 
 Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121601 cylinders, 
 total 1953525168 sectors
 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
 Disk identifier: 0xcee8ad92
 
 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 /dev/sda1 1 1953525167 976762583+ ee GPT
 Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.
 

10. How to Check Linux Hardware Components Info

You can also use the dmidecode utility to extract hardware information by reading data from the DMI tables.

To print information about memory, run this command as a superuser.

[email protected] ~ $sudo dmidecode -t memory
 
 # dmidecode 2.12
 # SMBIOS entry point at 0xaaebef98
 SMBIOS 2.7 present.
 
 Handle 0x0005, DMI type 5, 24 bytes
 Memory Controller Information
 Error Detecting Method: None
 Error Correcting Capabilities:
  None
 Supported Interleave: One-way Interleave
 Current Interleave: One-way Interleave
 Maximum Memory Module Size: 8192 MB
 Maximum Total Memory Size: 32768 MB
 Supported Speeds:
  Other
 Supported Memory Types:
  Other
 Memory Module Voltage: Unknown
 Associated Memory Slots: 4
  0x0006
  0x0007
  0x0008
  0x0009
 Enabled Error Correcting Capabilities:
  None
 ...
 

To print information about the system, run this command.

[email protected] ~ $sudo dmidecode -t system
 
 # dmidecode 2.12
 # SMBIOS entry point at 0xaaebef98
 SMBIOS 2.7 present.
 
 Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
 System Information
 Manufacturer: LENOVO
 Product Name: 20354
 Version: Lenovo Z50-70
 Serial Number: 1037407803441
 UUID: 29D2B1E4-37D2-11E4-9F6E-28D244EBBD98
 Wake-up Type: Power Switch
 SKU Number: LENOVO_MT_20354_BU_idea_FM_Lenovo Z50-70
 Family: IDEAPAD
 ...
 

To print information about BIOS, run this command.

[email protected] ~ $sudo dmidecode -t bios
 
 # dmidecode 2.12
 # SMBIOS entry point at 0xaaebef98
 SMBIOS 2.7 present.
 
 Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes
 BIOS Information
 Vendor: LENOVO
 Version: 9BCN26WW
 Release Date: 07/31/2014
 Address: 0xE0000
 Runtime Size: 128 kB
 ROM Size: 4096 kB
 Characteristics:
  PCI is supported
  BIOS is upgradeable
  BIOS shadowing is allowed
  Boot from CD is supported
  Selectable boot is supported
  EDD is supported
  Japanese floppy for NEC 9800 1.2 MB is supported (int 13h)
  Japanese floppy for Toshiba 1.2 MB is supported (int 13h)
  5.25"/360 kB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
  5.25"/1.2 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
  3.5"/720 kB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
  3.5"/2.88 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
  8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)
  CGA/mono video services are supported (int 10h)
  ACPI is supported
  USB legacy is supported
  BIOS boot specification is supported
  Targeted content distribution is supported
  UEFI is supported
 BIOS Revision: 0.26
 Firmware Revision: 0.26
 ...
 

To print information about the processor, run this command.

[email protected] ~ $sudo dmidecode -t processor
 
 # dmidecode 2.12
 # SMBIOS entry point at 0xaaebef98
 SMBIOS 2.7 present.
 
 Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 42 bytes
 Processor Information
 Socket Designation: U3E1
 Type: Central Processor
 Family: Core i5
 Manufacturer: Intel(R) Corporation
 ID: 51 06 04 00 FF FB EB BF
 Signature: Type 0, Family 6, Model 69, Stepping 1
 Flags:
 ...
 

Summary

There are many other ways you can use to obtain information about your system hardware components. Most of these commands use files in the /proc directory to extract system information.

Hope you find these tips and tricks useful and remember to post a comment in case you want to add more information to this or if you face any difficulties in using any of the commands. Remember to always stay connected to Tecmint.

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38 thoughts on “10 Commands to Collect System and Hardware Info in Linux”

  1. Is there a tool that can inventory serial ports and report on the supported features for each port? For example, does the port support any/all of the control lines or only transmit/receive? Does the port have specific speed limitations? etc.

    Reply
  2. Please can you advise me for utility or tools in RHEL equivalent to explorer tool (in oracle solaris) to collect whole information about system in order to analysis .

    Reply
  3. How can we get kernel component related information in linux? What are the commands?

    Reply
  4. Where do the html output goes to? I tried the lshw >html but I can’t find it anywhere. By the way, I was curious whether running lshw>txt would work, but it didn’t lol

    Reply
    • @Moltke,

      The html file created in your current working directory, for example if you run the following command from /home/username, the output of html will be created under /home/username, that you can check with ls command.

      # sudo lshw -html > lshw.html # ls 
      Reply
      • Thank you for your answer. Yes, after posting the question it occurred to me to check the capture again and there it was; /home/username on the search bar, so I went to my home folder and found it.

        Felt a little bit like a fool and wanted to delete the comment but it is not possible to do so :)…thanks again for your answer. And nice article! I’m a big fan of this site, always come to check what’s new and always find some really useful articles like this one.

        By the way, if I were to do some “benchmarks” on Linux systems, what is the best way to do so? Something else than top, htop or the likes.

        I’m running some VMs under virtualbox and I’m curious if it is possible to do and how. I’d like to do that to compare them all cause I’m creating a wiki with all the tests I’ve done so far for personal use and who knows, maybe even upload it onto the web!!

        Reply
        • @Moltke

          You can use:
          1. glances – a top-like monitoring tool with modern features compared to top
          2. smem – reports memory consumption per-process and per-user basis in Linux
          3. stress-ng – impose high CPU load and run stress test
          4. And there are lot’s of other tools you can find here: 20 Command Line Tools to Monitor Linux Performance

          These are obviously not the only tools, but i believe using a collection of various tools/utilities can help you come up with accurate and more reliable results. Thanks.

          Reply
          • Thanks for your answer. I’ve used glances and it is quite useful. The other ones haven’t used them yet, but I will.

            On Linux system where systemd is present, it’s possible to use some command line utilities to gather information about boot time, CPU usage and more, what can I use to do this in those ones where it is not?.

            Also, the mesa-utils offer the capability to run tests on graphics performance. However, this is a lot of information to process and it is much time consuming, is there such a software/tool which I can use for gathering this information altogether?

            I think probably not, but if you don’t mind I’d like to post the question, is there any? In the link you provided I see collectl, and it certainly looks like the perfect tool to accomplish what I want, or at least most of it, so I’ll try it and see what’s capable of. Thanks again for taking the time to answer. :)

  5. You can also use smartctl to check your drives, hpasmcli/hpacucli for hp servers, and ipmitool sdr list to see information about your sensors, fans, etc.

    Reply
  6. How can i check hardware in other PCs in networks that has Linux on board? I have been using 3rd party GUI computer hardware inventory
    from Softinventive Lab software but it`s too pricy. Any clues?

    Reply
    • @Kerhep

      I suppose you mean checking PC hardware info from a Linux machine, we have not come across any specific tools for that purpose, however, you can use network monitoring tools such as Nagios, Zabbix, Monitorix and many more. Although, they may not offer detailed hardware info from PCs.

      Reply
    • You could use “ansible” which is great tool mainly used for automation, orchestration, which can also handy for running standalone commands, which can just use native ssh protocol to query end device and pull out complete hardware dump and show it.

      This is again open source, however, there is an enterprise version called “ansible tower” for which u would need license. Ansible is belongs to Red Hat now.

      Reply
      • @Mssm

        Thanks for the clear, descriptive and above all useful feedback. I’ll surely try it out and hope every user who has faced the same issue as @Kerhap Gause will as well.

        Reply

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